By Arnold Hanslmeier
This publication offers entire insurance of the solar and area climate, swiftly evolving issues. during this re-creation, the data has been up to date to incorporate the newest effects. additionally, new sections are integrated, like one on area climate information resources, in addition to examples and data on new satellite tv for pc missions.
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5 MeV in the Kamiokande experiment, must also contribute to the gallium event rate. This contributes another 7 SNU, unless something happens to the lower energy neutrinos after they are created in the Sun. Thus the Ga experiments are in accordance with predictions if we exclude everything but the pp neutrinos. This is sometimes called the third neutrino problem. The calculated pp neutrino ﬂux is approximately independent of solar models; it is closely related to the total luminosity of the sun.
Adaptive optics (AO) provides a means of compensating for these eﬀects, leading to appreciably sharper images sometimes approaching the theoretical diﬀraction limit. One technique that has been developed for overcoming atmospheric blurring is speckle interferometry, in which hundreds of very short exposures (”specklegrams”) are processed after the observations to reconstruct the unblurred image. However, because the specklegrams must be short exposures and at the same time should have good signal-to-noise, speckle interferometry is limited to imaging very bright objects.
The SAGE is a Russian/American experiment and uses 60 tons of metallic Gallium. The GALLEX experiment is a European experiment located underground in Italy. It uses 30 tons of Ga in a GaCl3 HCl solution. More than half of the neutrinos that can be detected with this experiment come from the second most important contribution of the pp chain, from 7 Be. Again the results are inconsistent with theoretical predictions with a discrepancy by a factor of about 2. However, they provided a ﬁrst experimental indication of the presence of pp neutrinos.
The Sun and Space Weather by Arnold Hanslmeier