By Jose A. Campos-Ortega, Volker Hartenstein
" . . . yet our wisdom is so vulnerable that no thinker will ever manage to thoroughly discover the character of even a fly . . . " * Thomas Aquinas "In Symbolum Apostolorum" 079 RSV p/96 it is a monograph on embryogenesis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, conceived as a reference e-book at the morphology of embryonic improvement. A monograph of this volume and content material isn't really but to be had within the literature on Drosophila embryology, and we think that there's a genuine want for it. because of the professional gress completed over the past ten years within the fields of enhance psychological and molecular genetics, paintings on Drosophila improvement has expanQ. ed significantly, growing an excellent higher want for the knowledge that we current right here. Our personal curiosity in embryonic improvement of the wild variety arose a number of years in the past, once we started to examine the advance of mutants. during those stories we time and again had celebration to find gaps and inade quacies within the latest literature at the embryology of the wild style, in order that we undertook to enquire a lot of those difficulties ourselves. confident that lots of our colleagues could have encountered comparable problems, we made up our minds to put up the current monograph. even supposing now not explicitly recorded, Thomas Aquinas was once proba bly bearing on the household fly and never to the fruit fly. Irrespec tive of which fly he intended, notwithstanding, we all know that Thomas used to be correct.
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E. a total of approx. 1000 cells. Hartenstein and Campos-Ortega (1985) counted a total of 1250 cells invaginating at gastrulation, of which 450 will form the amnioproctodeal invagination, 730 the mesoderm primordium and the remaining 70 the endodermal midgut primordium (see Chap. 8). The cephalic furrow forms at the same time as the ventral furrow (Fig. 6 F). It extends transversally from the dorsal midline, at about 60% EL, to the ventral midline at about 75% EL, thus following an oblique course.
3A-C 21 22 Stages of Drosophila Embryogenesis A Fig. 4. A is a stage 3 embryo, after protrusion of the three polar buds, showing the prophase of the ninth zygotic division. B is a late stage 3 embryo after completion of the ninth cleavage. Notice increased peripheral displacement of plasmatic material. Fuchsin-stained whole mounts (phase contrast optics). m Stage 4 a) Living Embryos. Corresponds to stage 4 of Bownes (1975). Stage 4 lasts approx. 50 min (1 :20 - 2: lOh). It is the stage of syneytial blastoderm in whieh blastoderm nuclei perform the last four cleavage divisions (Foe and Alberts 1983); stage 4 terminates at the beginning of eellularization.
Both parts are clearly discontinuous, being separated from each other by means of a narrow band of non-neurogenic cells. Laterodorsal and ventromedial parts of the neurogenic ectoderm consist of large cells of striking basophily that derive directly from blastoderm cells, without intervening mitoses. The pattern of neuroblast segregation is different in both parts. Within the ventromedial portion of the neurogenic region, single cells and small cell groups leave the germ layer, internalizing and organizing themselves according to a characteristic pattern within the space limited by the mesoderm and the ectoderm; grouping of neuro bl asts into readily definable neuromeres occurs so on (refer to Chap.
The Embryonic Development of Drosophila melanogaster by Jose A. Campos-Ortega, Volker Hartenstein