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"Standard perform for the layout and Operation of Precipitation Enhancement tasks" offers state of the art cloud seeding know-how functions for precipitation enhancement initiatives. by using numerous meteorological and hydrological observations, water assets engineers can assessment the effectiveness of enhancing precipitation tools. matters mentioned during this booklet comprise the historical past and standing of cloud seeding and the options, designs, operations, and overview of those tasks. ordinary cloud methods, with an emphasis on man made intervention via cloud seeding, are mentioned. those methods can in all likelihood raise the possibilities of precipitation achieving the floor. Operational specifications and approaches resembling body of workers, decision-making, communications, questions of safety and seeding suspension standards are integrated. issues coated contain: Definition of venture scope; focusing on and supply tools; Seeding agent choice and gear issues; information assortment and instrumentation; criminal matters and environmental issues; and review of results of cloud seeding.
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The King Air was used on the Bureau of Reclamation's SCPP, the High Plains Cooperative Program (HIPLEX), and the North Dakota Thunderstorm Project (NDTP). 31 DESIGN AND OPERATION OF PRECIPITATION ENHANCEMENT PROJECTS FIGURE 3-16. University of Wyoming King Air cloud physics aircraft. 8 Other Instrumentation and Equipment As previously stated, it is critical that verification be obtained that the cloud seeding agent being used is making it to the appropriate regions of the intended cloud in sufficient concentrations to be productive.
These data can then be analyzed before, during, and after seeding to investigate possible differences that may be attributable to cloud seeding (Warburton and DeFelice 1986 provides an example). The same instruments—Particle Measurement Systems probes (2D-C) used on aircraft for measuring ice crystal concentrations—can be used at the ground to count and size ice crystals. This is accomplished by either aspirating the probe or mounting the probe on a vehicle and driving it through the desired area.
Gauge resolution also is important. 3 mm. This is on the order of what seeding produces in about an hour. Because of the requirement for high resolution and a large orifice, servicing of the gauge will be frequent unless the catch can be automatically drained and a fresh antifreeze charge placed into the gauge. Figure 3-12 shows a weighing type rain/snow gauge that automatically drains and recharges itself, thus requiring no visits 27 DESIGN AND OPERATION OF PRECIPITATION ENHANCEMENT PROJECTS FIGURE 3-12.
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