By Susumu Seino, Graeme I. Bell
The beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are the one cells within the physique that produce and secrete insulin. This metabolic hormone performs a critical position within the upkeep of glucose homeostasis, regulating glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue in addition to carbohydrate, fats, and protein metabolism in those tissues and the liver.
This publication presents a finished up to date evaluation of the beta telephone in well-being and sickness. Chapters deal with the structure and pathology of ordinary and diabetic pancreatic islets; rules of beta-cell proliferation and dying; the possibility of stem cells and extra-pancreatic tissues as beta-cell alternative treatments; insulin biosynthesis; law of insulin secretion together with metabolic regulate, ion channels, hole junctions, cyclic AMP, incretins, and exocytosis; improvement of novel imaging recommendations; and genetic issues of the beta telephone. a first-rate goal of the e-book is to inspire scholars and younger simple and medical investigators to develop into actively concerned about diabetes study and the hunt for brand spanking new techniques to avoid and deal with diabetes.
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The beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are the single cells within the physique that produce and secrete insulin. This metabolic hormone performs a critical position within the upkeep of glucose homeostasis, regulating glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue in addition to carbohydrate, fats, and protein metabolism in those tissues and the liver.
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Additional resources for Pancreatic Beta Cell in Health and Disease
Wang M, Drucker DJ (1996) Activation of amylin gene transcription by LIM domain homeobox gene isl-1. Mol Endocrinol 10:243–251 56. Peshavaria M, Gamer L, Henderson E, Teitelman G, Wright CV, Stein R (1994) XIHbox 8, an endoderm-speciﬁc Xenopus homeodomain protein, is closely related to a mammalian insulin gene transcription factor. Mol Endocrinol 8: 806–816 57. Petersen HV, Serup P, Leonard J, Michelsen BK, Madsen OD (1994) Transcriptional regulation of the human insulin gene is dependent on the homeodomain protein STF1/IPF1 acting through the CT boxes.
Mice lacking active CPE, the CPEfat mouse, exhibit signiﬁcant defects in processing proinsulin and many other neuroendocrine precursors and in addition to obesity, develop diabetes, especially the males . Additional cellular carboxypeptidases, such as carboxypeptidase D, that also may participate in precursor processing in some tissues have been identiﬁed more recently . Removal of basic residues is not only important for efﬁcient and rapid endoproteolytic processing by the PCs, but also prepares certain neuropeptides for C-terminal amidation, a modiﬁcation that is often essential for their activity and is carried out by PAM, the peptidyl amidating monooxygenase .
MafA expression is found exclusively in insulin producing cells in developing and adult pancreas, a unique property in relation to all other islet-enriched 20 I. Artner and R. Stein transcriptional activators . MafA also appears to control glucoseregulated and fatty acid-inhibited insulin expression [82–84]. However, MafA deﬁcient animals had no defects in beta cell development, but adult islet cell function was impaired, with partial loss of insulin expression observed . These results suggest a critical role in beta cell maintenance and function in the adult organ, in part due to its actions on insulin transcription .
Pancreatic Beta Cell in Health and Disease by Susumu Seino, Graeme I. Bell