By Reinhard Noll
This ebook is a accomplished resource of the basics, technique parameters, instrumental elements and functions of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The impression of a number of pulses on fabric ablation, plasma dynamics and plasma emission is gifted. A heuristic plasma modeling permits to simulate advanced experimental plasma spectra. those equipment and findings shape the foundation for various functions to accomplish quantitative multi-element research with LIBS. those software potentials of LIBS have rather boosted within the final years starting from bulk research of metal alloys and non-conducting fabrics, through spatially resolved research and intensity profiling protecting measuring items in all actual states: gaseous, liquid and strong. committed chapters current LIBS investigations for those projects with precise emphasis at the methodical and instrumental suggestions in addition to the optimization ideas for a quantitative research. specifications, thoughts, layout and attribute positive factors of LIBS tools are defined masking laboratory structures, inspections structures for in-line procedure keep an eye on, cellular structures and distant platforms. cutting-edge business functions of LIBS structures are offered demonstrating the advantages of inline procedure keep watch over for more advantageous method guiding and caliber insurance purposes.
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Extra resources for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications
Depending on the pulse energy, this results in powers of the laser pulses ranging from 50 kW to 25 MW. Fig. 5 Schematic illustration of the interaction of nanosecond (ns, top row) and femtosecond laser pulses (fs, bottom row) with a sample for LIBS, for abbreviations see Fig. 2 Temporal Characteristics of the Laser Pulse 100n pulse width [s] 10n 1n 23 33 266 nm SP 308 nm SP 532 nm SP 775 nm SP 780 nm SP 800 nm SP 1054 nm SP 1064 nm SP 800 nm DP 1064 nm DP 19 24 9 4 22 5 2 32 16 25 7 10 23 14 100p 20 6 8 15 12 3 21 1 17, 27 36 10p 1p 11 29 31 34 35 100f 30 26 18 28 10f 1μ 10μ 100μ 1m 10m 100m 1 laser burst energy [J] Fig.
The effect of double and multiple pulses will be discussed in more detail in Chaps. 6–8. 3 Laser Wavelength The absorption properties of a substance depend on the wavelength of the laser radiation. This natural absorption determines the portion of the laser pulse energy, which is coupled into the material, especially in the phases (1) and (2) as shown in Fig. 1 just before the initial state of aggregation of the substance to be analyzed 26 3 Process Parameters Fig. 10 Parameters of the interaction of laser radiation with a solid sample, LB D laser beam, S D sample, ıopt D optical penetration depth (OPD), ıh D heat penetration depth (HPD) of laser radiation in a solid sample (the drawing is not scaled), 2wb D laser beam diameter at the sample surface changes.
St-Onge, R. Sing, S. Bechard, M. Sabsabi, Carbon emissions following 1:064 m laser ablation of graphite and organic samples in ambient air. Appl. Phys. 27. H. Bette, R. Noll, High-speed laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for scanning microanalysis. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28. M. Stepputat, R. Noll, On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl. 29. B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. W. Johnston, S.
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications by Reinhard Noll