Read e-book online IEEE Std 446-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency PDF

By Inst of Electrical & Electronics Engineers

ISBN-10: 1559375981

ISBN-13: 9781559375986

Booklet through Inst of electric Electronics Engineers

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Read Online or Download IEEE Std 446-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commerical Applications PDF

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Extra info for IEEE Std 446-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commerical Applications

Example text

Table 3-4 illustrates how this can be achieved. 2 Process heating Process heating is defined as heat required to maintain certain process materials at the required temperature. , 5 min to a maximum of several hours. 37 IEEE Std 446-1995 CHAPTER 3 Table 3-4—Systems for continued steam production Allowable outage duration Components Systems Flame supervision systems Nil Mechanical stored energy systems Motor-generator set ride-through UPS systems Motor controls and instrumentation Nil Same as above Boiler fans 1/2 to 2 s Multiple utility services, either on-line and relayed, or off-line, switched, and transferred Air compressor To 30 min, depending on storage; nonessential air users should be automatically shut off Multiple utility services Turbine- or engine-driven generator, off-line Turbine (combustion, steam, water), off-line Water pump To 5 min, depending on water drum capacity and upsets in steam production caused by power disturbance Multiple utility services either on-line and relayed, or off-line, switched, and transferred Turbine (combustion, steam, water), off-line, automatic start Oil pumps (for burners) To 15 cycles, more with flywheel Multiple utility services, on-line and relayed Turbine (combustion, steam, water), on-line Electric oil supply pumps Several minutes Turbine- or engine-driven generator, off-line Multiple utility services, on- or off-line Any of the following systems would be adequate for this application: — — — — 38 Engine-driven generators, off-line Multiple utility services, on-line and relayed, or off-line, switches, and transfers Turbine (combustion, steam, water), off-line or on-line Mechanical stored-energy system, with auxiliary motor generator sets off-line GENERAL NEED GUIDELINES IEEE Std 446-1995 Other heating processes, such as cord and fabric treating and drying, are of such a critical nature that loss of heat will cause an out-of-specification product within 10 s, but the gas or oil burners and flame detectors are sensitive to drops in voltage of about 40% for a second or less.

A less tangible item lost is that of goodwill. For example, in the film processing industry, the customer may not consider the replacement of the exposed film with unexposed as adequate compensation for “once in a lifetime” pictures that were spoiled due to a power failure. Real and potential costs and losses must be calculated or estimated and added together to justify an emergency and standby power system for industrial and commercial facilities. A reasonable estimate of the costs associated with each past power failure should be calculated and recorded in a journal with the date, duration, and conditions existing at the time.

2 Refrigeration to reduce hazards Certain chemical processes are exothermal and release heat during the chemical reaction. Loss of the cooling or refrigeration system may cause severe damage or even an explosion. 3 Typical system to maintain refrigeration A manual starting of an engine-driven generator, turbine, or alternate utility supply will usually suffice, providing a suitable alarm is installed to notify responsible persons of a loss of refrigeration. 1 Justification for maintaining production in an industrial facility during a power failure Production continuation in an industrial facility during a power failure is justified by the total sum of many tangible and intangible savings.

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IEEE Std 446-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commerical Applications by Inst of Electrical & Electronics Engineers


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