This e-book units out to extend the notice, of operators in the chemical and method undefined, to the risks of air and oxygen. It starts via describing the basics of fireplace utilizing the hearth triangle to give an explanation for the connection of air and oxygen to fires. Discusses the makes use of of air and oxygen in the chemical and procedure industries, earlier than declaring the aptitude dangers in terms of the prospective makes use of. utilizing examples of tangible injuries to focus on the aptitude threats and clarify the potential motives, it increases the information and know-how of operators to the hazards of air and oxygen, permitting them to identify risks prior to injuries ensue. The publication concludes with a precis part reviewing and summing up the knowledge in the ebook. a great advent to the subject for college kids.
desk of Contents
1. a few basics
2. The Chemistry of fireplace
five. Ignition assets
7. different mess ups
eight. keep away from Flammable combos
nine. put off Oxygen
10. particular risks of natural Oxygen
eleven. Trapped strain possibility
12. a few issues to recollect
try out your self!
Acronyms and Abbreviations
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Additional resources for Hazards of Air and Oxygen
They could have been avoided if the potential danger had been recognized and certain precautionary measures taken. *In containers for sampling light hydrocarbons, it is not feasible to use pressurerelief valves or rupture disks, in contrast to commercial LPG containers used for storage and transportation. Release of gas through pressure relieving devices could be nearly the same hazard as rupture of the container. ACCIDENT One of the above-mentioned failures was a 1,900-ml sampling container that had been filled with field butane at a line pressure of 220 psi (15 bars) at a temperature of 26°F (Ϫ3°C) (Figure 36).
Always be aware of places where air or gas can accumulate in piping (high points, hydraulic legs . . ). • When working on a piece of equipment that may contain air or gas, never stay in front of it (heater pipe plug, heat exchanger tube, pig receiver door . . ). Also, remember that air can be compressed in a vessel when filling it with product, if the vents are not able to cope. This is what happened in the following two accidents, luckily without anybody being hurt: ACCIDENT An atmospheric storage tank used to contain boiler treatment chemicals failed due to overpressure.
Although this tank appears to have been damaged by vacuum, it was established by examination that the vacuum damage occurred due to the outrush of water after the explosion had ruptured the tank. Note the unbuckled condition of the supporting truss in the centre of the area which was pushed out. Investigation also disclosed that the nozzle through which the spheroid was vented during the filling with water was located below the high point of the vessel. This allowed a pocket of hydrocarbons, estimated to be as much as 4 1⁄2 barrels, to remain in the top of the vessel even though it had overflowed with water.
Hazards of Air and Oxygen