By CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Devoted to the reminiscence and Spirit of Donald F. Othmer although there are lots of practices for construction layout and siting, they don't consistently practice to all sectors of the undefined, or be certain constant degrees of protection. This functional e-book, written by means of an identical writer as API suggested perform 752, presents the main points to enforce the urged perform, "Management of risks linked to position of procedure Plant Buildings." Its contents contain defense directions on fireplace and explosion hazards to approach plant structures because of occasions exterior to the construction, that could observe around the spectrum of industries, and to stipulations at any web site. The booklet additionally bargains counsel on assessing, screening, and coping with dangers linked to construction layout and siting. appendices supply vast assurance of explosion and fireplace phenomena, and results and rules of blast-resistant layout.
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Extra info for Guidelines for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions and Fires (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Therefore, as long as feedstocks are dry, carbon steel – with various corrosion allowances – can be used for the vessels, piping, and valve bodies of hydrofluoric acid alkylation units. All carbon steel welds that will contact HF, should be post-weld heat treated. Fractionation towers should have Type 410 (S41000) stainless steel tray valves and bolting, and for desiobutanizer tower tray valves and bolting, alloy 400 (N04400) is recommended. Corrosion problems in HF alkylation units occur after shut-down because pockets of water have been left in the equipment.
For example, chloride SCC was caused by seawater spray carried by prevailing winds. The spray soaked the insulation over Type 304 stainless steel, chlorides were concentrated by evaporation, and cracking occurred at areas with residual weld stresses. Other frequent causes of cracking are water dripping on a warm pipe and water leaching chlorides from insulation. As discussed previously, chlorides are present in a number of refining units, including crude distillation, hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and reforming.
As a general rule of thumb, hydrogen stress cracking can be expected to occur in process streams containing in excess of 50 ppm hydrogen sulfide (although cracking has been found to occur at lower concentrations). There is a direct relationship between hydrogen sulfide concentration and the allowable maximum hardness value of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) on one hand and cracking threshold stress on the other. Typically, the allowable maximum hardness value decreases 30 HB, and the allowable threshold stress decreases by 50% for a tenfold increase in hydrogen sulfide concentration.
Guidelines for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions and Fires (Center for Chemical Process Safety) by CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)