By Donald L. Turcotte
Now in a significantly elevated moment version, this e-book relates fractals and chaos to various geological and geophysical purposes and introduces the elemental strategies of fractal geometry and chaotic dynamics. during this re-creation, Turcotte expands assurance of self-organized criticality and contains statistics and time sequence to supply a huge heritage for the reader. issues comprise drainage networks and erosion, floods, earthquakes, mineral and petroleum assets, fragmentation, mantle convection, and magnetic box new release. the writer introduces all options on the lowest attainable point of arithmetic in keeping with their realizing, in order that the reader calls for just a historical past in simple physics and arithmetic. He comprises difficulties for the reader to resolve. This e-book will entice a large diversity of readers attracted to advanced common phenomena.
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Additional info for Fractals and chaos in geology and geophysics
These theories have provided the foundation for extracting fracture information from seismic anisotropy analysis. There is agreement between the models for dry rock, but differences occur in the case of fluid fill and fluid flow between cracks and pores. Also note that these theories are all developed for fractured media with one scale length. For applications to seismic data the Thomsen equant porosity model (Thomsen 1995) and the Hudson crack model (Hudson 1981) are used most widely. Thomsen's model assumes perfect pressure equalization between cracks and equant pores in the surrounding rock matrix.
6. Variation of P-wave velocities with frequency for propagation normal to the fractures (0~ and parallel to the fractures (90~ P-waves do not sense the scale of fractures when they propagate along the fractures, but will show strong dependence on fracture size when they propagate normal to the fractures. Two characteristic frequencies exist: the low characteristic frequency is associated with meso-scale fractures, while the high characteristic frequency is related to the micro-cracks. been extended to accommodate a range of fracture sizes, including a distribution of fracture sizes and orientations (Liu et aL 2003b).
Many mineral deposits are closely related to fault/fracture networks and the flow of mineralizing fluids through them. , to help predict favourable sites for mineralization and exploration strategies. The author thanks Dr Robert Cuss, Professor Rob Knipe, Dr Richard Shaw and Dr Sue Raikes for providing improvements to this paper. Much benefit was also derived from correspondence with Dr Peter Leary and Professor Stuart Crampin whilst writing the paper, without implying that either necessarily agrees with the interpretations given here.
Fractals and chaos in geology and geophysics by Donald L. Turcotte