By Juha P. Kokko, Richard L. Tannen
This variation provides an authoritative method of sufferers with fluid electrolyte and acid-base issues. It offers either an in depth matrix for dealing with sufferers with particular electrolyte issues and scientific stipulations linked to electrolyte imbalances. It includes new fabric on problems of being pregnant, overall physique sodium, water metabolism and scientific food. Diagnostic and healing methods in addition to pathophysiology are designated.
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1992; Davidson et al. 1992). Its localization on the luminal surface of mature absorptive epithelial cells implied that GLUT5 participates in the uptake of dietary sugars (Davidson et al. 1992), a finding that has been confirmed by subsequent functional studies (Mahraoui et al. 1994). As we have stated earlier, the expression of many sugar transporters is influenced by the availability of the metabolic substrate(s) they carry. These are classic examples of gene regulation by the substrate(s). Also, GLUTs are regulated by endocrine factors; as an adaptive response to variations in metabolic conditions, the expression of the GLUT1–5 transporters is regulated by glucose and different hormones (Thorens 1996).
1 Physiological Roles of GLUTs 1–5 Glucose transporters are integral membrane glycoproteins involved in transporting glucose into most cells. It is generally accepted that GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 are high-affinity transporters whereas GLUT2 is a low-affinity transporter isoform; GLUT5 is primarily a fructose carrier (Thorens 1996). , hepatocytes, absorptive intestine epithelial cells, and proximal tubule cells of the kidney nephron) (Tal et al. 1990; Thorens et al. 1990). 24 Mammalian Sugar Transporter Families: GLUT and SGLT Table 1 Members of the GLUT/SLC2A family of facilitative glucose/polyol transporters (extended and modified from Airley and Mobasheri 2007, Goggs et al.
Thus far 17 subgroups of the MFS have been identified. The human genome project has identified 14 members of the GLUT/SLC2A family which have been cloned in humans (Wood and Trayhurn 2003; Wu and Freeze 2002) (Fig. 6, Table 1). GLUT proteins are characterized by the presence of 12 membrane spanning helices and several conserved sequence motifs (Joost and Thorens 2001). The GLUT/SLC2A proteins are expressed in a tissueand cell-specific manner and exhibit distinct kinetic and regulatory properties that reflect their functional and tissue-specific roles.
Fluids and Electrolytes by Juha P. Kokko, Richard L. Tannen