By Serge A. Shapiro
The characterisation of fluid delivery homes of rocks is among the most crucial, but tough, demanding situations of reservoir geophysics, yet is key for optimum improvement of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. This ebook presents a quantitative creation to the underlying physics, program, interpretation, and threat facets of fluid-induced seismicity with a specific specialize in its spatio-temporal dynamics. It provides many genuine info examples of microseismic tracking of hydraulic fracturing at hydrocarbon fields and of stimulations of improved geothermal platforms. the writer additionally covers introductory points of linear elasticity and poroelasticity idea, in addition to components of seismic rock physics and mechanics of earthquakes, permitting readers to increase a complete knowing of the sphere. Fluid-Induced Seismicity is a helpful reference for researchers and graduate scholars operating within the fields of geophysics, geology, geomechanics and petrophysics, and a realistic consultant for petroleum geoscientists and engineers operating within the strength undefined.
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Extra info for Fluid-Induced Seismicity
2 Geomechanics of seismic events 21 A great deal of active research in modern seismology has been dedicated to investigating the nature of the friction along pre-existing interfaces in rocks. A comprehensive review on the subject can be found in the last two chapters of the book of Segall (2010). 6) at a reference slip velocity v0 and at the quantity θ f (a so-called state variable) equal to its reference value θ f 0 . The quantities a f and b f are empiric dimensionless constants defining the behavior of the dynamic friction.
Kummerow (2010) proposed this method and applied it to microseismic data recorded during a hydraulic experiment at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB) in Germany. The number of reliably determined hypocenters was increased by a factor of about eight compared with standard location methods. Another variation of this approach inverts both the measured arrival times and cross-correlation values of the waveforms for the hypocenter coordinates. Such algorithms have the potential to significantly better locate seismic events in comparison to the purely arrival-time-based approaches.
Both of these energy changes result from the work of the loading forces along the crack surface. Thus, together they should be proportional to the length of the crack X , to its surface increment δS, as well as to the density of the elastic energy in the sample, τl2 /(2G e ). 88) must be proportional to X δSτl2 /G e . 88) is disturbed so that its left-hand side is larger than the right-hand side, then the crack will not receive sufficient energy to grow. 88) is larger than the left-hand side, then the crack will grow unstably and the sample will fail.
Fluid-Induced Seismicity by Serge A. Shapiro