By Augustus De Morgan

ISBN-10: 1104127741

ISBN-13: 9781104127749

This e-book is a facsimile reprint and should include imperfections reminiscent of marks, notations, marginalia and wrong pages.

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**Example text**

The constant c only depends on the angles: if these are ϕ1 , ϕ2 , . . , ϕn , then c = 4 cot(ϕi /2). Equality holds only if the polygon is a tangential polygon. We conclude that of the polygons with ﬁxed perimeter and angles, the tangential polygon has the greatest area. 6 The theory of linear families was not developed for polygons, but for arbitrary closed convex curves k1 and k2 (Fig. 3). By corresponding points A and B, k2 k1 A B Fig. 3. we mean points with parallel tangent lines. If C is the point on AB such that AC : CB = μ : λ, then the locus of C is element k(λ, μ) of the family.

At the vertices, perpendicular to l, and determine the points B1 and B2 , and so on, such that B1 B2 is equal to BB , lies on the same line, and has its midpoint on l. This gives rise to a polygon A1 B1 C1 D1 C2 B2 with the same area as ABCD (it is, after all, divided up into trapezoids, respectively triangles, with the same areas as the parts of ABCD) and a perimeter that is at most equal to that of ABCD, because all trapezoids have been replaced by isosceles ones. The perimeters are equal only if ABCD already possesses a symmetry axis that is parallel to l.

1, P BC, P CA, and P AB are positive, QBC and QCA positive, QAB negative, RBC and RAB negative, and RCA positive. There is a simple relation between trilinear and barycentric coordinates: ¯ = a¯ X x, Y¯ = b¯ y , Z¯ = c¯ z. 7) then X : Y : Z = ax : by : cz . 8) In the coordinates X, Y , and Z, the line at inﬁnity has equation X+Y +Z = 0. In these coordinates, a line has a homogeneous linear equation, and every homogeneous linear equation represents a line. 3 Let us determine the trilinear coordinates of a number of special points, and the equations of a number of lines.

### First Notions Of Logic: Preparatory To The Study Of Geometry by Augustus De Morgan

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