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This is probably due in large part to the high value electric utilities assign to reliability; failure of the power transformer could result in a shutdown of the entire generating plant. Furthermore, although the cost savings associated with the superconducting power transformer appear to be substantial, the power transformer itself represents only a small part of the entire generating plant. 1 INTRODUCTION at temperatures above the The recent discoveries of materials that are superconducting boiling point (77 K) of liquid nitrogen (LN2) may allow the development of power apparatus with significantly higher operating efficiencies and, hence, greatly reduced These materials also might have the advantage of remaining in the operating costs.
Absence of iron has other useful attributes, such as an increase in the armature space factor and a reduction in core losses. An increase in useful flux density helps still further by shortening the armature path around each unit of flux, thus reducing the ratio of armature loss to power produced. The usefulness of superconductors in machines, therefore, depends on their having reasonably high useful current and flux density limits, as well as lossless conduction. These limits have an impact on the efficiency and on the first cost of the generator.
If the field current were too large, leads required to carry current from the slip rings or rotating exciter would impose too large a thermal load. If the current were too small, control voltages would become too high. Field currents in the range of 103-lo4 A seem reasonable; these current values imply a conductor size of 3-10 mm (in conductors with lo4 A/cm2). 3 OTHER APPLICATIONS For reasons discussed in Sec. 2, a substantial increase in transition temperature is likely to extend the range of machines for which superconductivity will be helpful to much smaller ratings.
Field theory, disordered and simulations by Parisi