By Ali Mobasheri, Carolyn A. Bondy, Kelle Moley, Alexandrina Ferreira Mendes, Susana Carvalho Rosa, Stephen Richardson, Judith A Hoyland, Richard Barrett-Jolley, Mehdi Shakibaei
Articular cartilage is a different and hugely really expert avascular connective tissue within which the supply of oxygen and glucose is considerably below synovial fluid and plasma. Glucose is a necessary resource of strength in the course of embryonic progress and fetal improvement and is key for mesenchymal telephone differentiation, chondrogenesis and skeletal morphogenesis. Glucose is a crucial metabolic gas for differentiated chondrocytes in the course of post-natal improvement and in grownup articular cartilage and is a typical structural precursor for the synthesis of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans. Glucose metabolism is important for progress plate chondrocytes which perform lengthy bone progress. Glucose concentrations in articular cartilage can range reckoning on age, actual job and endocrine prestige. Chondrocytes are glycolytic cells and needs to be capable of feel the focus of oxygen and glucose within the extracellular matrix and reply adequately by means of adjusting mobile metabolism. therefore chondrocytes should have the ability to outlive in an extracellular matrix with restricted food and coffee oxygen tensions. released information from our laboratories recommend that chondrocytes show a number of isoforms of the GLUT/SLC2A family members of glucose/polyol transporters. In different tissues GLUT proteins are expressed in a cell-specific demeanour, convey precise kinetic houses, and are developmentally regulated. numerous GLUTs expressed in chondrocytes are regulated via hypoxia, hypoxia mimetics, metabolic hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines. during this multidisciplinary article we evaluation the molecular and morphological facets of GLUT expression and serve as in chondrocytes and their mesenchymal and embryonic stem phone precursors and suggest key roles for those proteins in glucose sensing and metabolic rules in cartilage.
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Extra info for Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes: Expression, Distribution and Functional Regulation of GLUT Isoforms by Hypoxia, Hypoxia Mimetics, ... in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology)
1992; Davidson et al. 1992). Its localization on the luminal surface of mature absorptive epithelial cells implied that GLUT5 participates in the uptake of dietary sugars (Davidson et al. 1992), a finding that has been confirmed by subsequent functional studies (Mahraoui et al. 1994). As we have stated earlier, the expression of many sugar transporters is influenced by the availability of the metabolic substrate(s) they carry. These are classic examples of gene regulation by the substrate(s). Also, GLUTs are regulated by endocrine factors; as an adaptive response to variations in metabolic conditions, the expression of the GLUT1–5 transporters is regulated by glucose and different hormones (Thorens 1996).
1 Physiological Roles of GLUTs 1–5 Glucose transporters are integral membrane glycoproteins involved in transporting glucose into most cells. It is generally accepted that GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 are high-affinity transporters whereas GLUT2 is a low-affinity transporter isoform; GLUT5 is primarily a fructose carrier (Thorens 1996). , hepatocytes, absorptive intestine epithelial cells, and proximal tubule cells of the kidney nephron) (Tal et al. 1990; Thorens et al. 1990). 24 Mammalian Sugar Transporter Families: GLUT and SGLT Table 1 Members of the GLUT/SLC2A family of facilitative glucose/polyol transporters (extended and modified from Airley and Mobasheri 2007, Goggs et al.
Thus far 17 subgroups of the MFS have been identified. The human genome project has identified 14 members of the GLUT/SLC2A family which have been cloned in humans (Wood and Trayhurn 2003; Wu and Freeze 2002) (Fig. 6, Table 1). GLUT proteins are characterized by the presence of 12 membrane spanning helices and several conserved sequence motifs (Joost and Thorens 2001). The GLUT/SLC2A proteins are expressed in a tissueand cell-specific manner and exhibit distinct kinetic and regulatory properties that reflect their functional and tissue-specific roles.
Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes: Expression, Distribution and Functional Regulation of GLUT Isoforms by Hypoxia, Hypoxia Mimetics, ... in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology) by Ali Mobasheri, Carolyn A. Bondy, Kelle Moley, Alexandrina Ferreira Mendes, Susana Carvalho Rosa, Stephen Richardson, Judith A Hoyland, Richard Barrett-Jolley, Mehdi Shakibaei