By The Met Office
Apprehensive concerning the warmth wave-could it's the results of international warming? essentially the most topical problems with our time is the topic of the most recent Eyewitness significant other: climate. All you must learn about cloud styles, violent storms, their motives and repercussions are available during this one entire yet transportable quantity. This publication will clarify the genuine technology at the back of the elements, from the way it works to how it's altering.
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THE ACTIVE SUN The Sun’s activity causes clouds of free electrons and protons, called plasma, to ﬂare out of its atmosphere. Tiny variations in its activity can affect the weather. proximity of a region to the equator, atmospheric pollution, and the degree to which different surfaces, such as the sea, snow, and vegetation, reﬂect or absorb the Sun’s radiation. SPOTS ON THE SUN A clue to the variation in solar activity is the number of sunspots—cooler regions on the Sun’s surface. The number of sunspots varies in a cycle that peaks about every 11 years, alternating between the Sun’s northern and 53 THE EARTH’S ENERGY SOURCE THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Electromagnetic radiation travels in the form of waves of differing lengths.
The innermost layer, known as the troposphere, stretches from the Earth’s surface up to about 6 miles (10 km) at high latitudes and 11 miles (18 km) at low latitudes. This layer contains all the weather systems and 75 percent of the atmosphere’s gases. It is characterized by falling temperatures, down to -112ºF (-80ºC) at the top of the troposphere. 232–33), since warmer air tends to rise up through the cooler air above it, in contrast to the “stable” stratosphere. Exosphere 430–500 miles (691–800 km) Thermosphere 54–430 miles (87–690 km) Meteorites burn up in thermosphere Mesopause Mesosphere 31–54 miles (50–87 km) Stratopause Stratosphere 11–31 miles (18–50 km) Tropopause Troposphere 0–6/11 miles (0–10/18 km) ATMOSPHERIC LAYERS Temperature falls as you ascend through the troposphere, then rises through the stratosphere, falls through the mesosphere, and rises again through the thermosphere.
They are created when air stagnates over warm or cold areas of land or sea, making the air hot or cold, and moist or dry. Air masses are largely responsible for determining an area’s weather. Arctic continental and polar continental air masses Polar maritime air mass Polar maritime air mass Tropical continental air mass Tropical maritime air mass THE DYNAMICS OF AIR MASSES Air masses are primarily deﬁned by the area in which they originate. They are classiﬁed as continental or maritime— depending on whether they originate over land or sea—and arctic or antarctic, equatorial, tropical, or polar, depending on the particular region in which they are formed.
Eyewitness Companions: Weather (Eyewitness Companion Guides) by The Met Office