By Dietmar Spengler, Elisabeth Binder
The box of neuroendocrinology has prolonged from the preliminary curiosity within the hypothalamic keep an eye on of pituitary secretion to embody a number of reciprocal interactions among the critical frightened process and endocrine structures within the coordination of homeostasis and numerous physiological responses from model to disorder. such a lot lately, epigenetic mechanisms have been famous for his or her position within the improvement of the neuroendocrine axes in addition to within the mediation of gene-environment interactions in stress-related psychiatry disorders.
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Extra info for Epigenetics and Neuroendocrinology: Clinical Focus on Psychiatry, Volume 1
2003). The hippocampus of rats continues to grow well into adulthood, and studies have shown that this growth is vulnerable to chronic stress during the juvenile period (Isgor et al. 2004). Here, studies have shown that chronic, variable stress during the peripubertal juvenile period results in reduced hippocampal volume in adulthood, which is accompanied by impairments in Morris water maze navigation and delayed shutdown of the HPA response to an acute stressor (Isgor et al. 2004). Given the fact that these differences in hippocampal morphology were not evident immediately after the stressor exposure but were only evident in adulthood (Isgor et al.
2007), an effect that is mediated by a glucocorticoid-induced enhancement of noradrenergic function in the amygdala. This modulation of noradrenergic function by glucocorticoids has been linked to the enhanced memory for emotional events that occur under stress (Roozendaal et al. 2002). In contrast to acute stress, chronic stress or chronic exogenous administration of glucocorticoids in rodents causes dendritic atrophy in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus (Magarinos and McEwen 1995).
Going along with this suggestion, increased cerebrospinal 1 From Vulnerability to Neurotoxicity : A Developmental Approach 23 fluid CRF levels have been reported in individuals with perceived childhood stress (Carpenter et al. 2004) and childhood abuse (Heim et al. 2001; Bradley et al. 2008). Decreased hippocampal volume and function are landmark features of depression and PTSD (Videbech and Ravnkilde 2004; Smith 2005). Vythilingam et al. (2002) found that a smaller hippocampus in women with major depression was associated with experiences of childhood trauma, whereas depressed women without such trauma had hippocampal volumes similar to healthy controls, supporting the notion that certain brain changes seen in patients with depression or PTSD may represent markers of vulnerability for the disorder rather than markers of the disorder itself.
Epigenetics and Neuroendocrinology: Clinical Focus on Psychiatry, Volume 1 by Dietmar Spengler, Elisabeth Binder