By Geoffrey Pridham (auth.)
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Additional resources for Designing Democracy: EU Enlargement and Regime Change in Post-Communist Europe
32 Designing Democracy The second case was more poignant because it involved an already established association, namely that with Greece. This had been agreed upon in 1962 when that country was under democratic rule, but in 1967 the Colonels’ coup inaugurated a military dictatorship. 21 This decision was taken with the aim of trying to influence the internal affairs of Greece; but it is difficult to prove the effects. 22 Admittedly there were other factors like the lack of the regime’s institutionalisation, its vulnerability to sustained pressures and, of course, the impact of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in the summer of 1974 on the Greek situation.
One should bear these other organisations in mind as their activity has tended to complement or buttress the democratic conditionality set by the EU. The European Union is different from other international bodies because it has been more comprehensive in detailing democratic criteria concerning the countries from CEE. g. 47 This greater concern on the part of the EU with significant areas of substantive democracy has inevitably brought that organisation more centrally into the debate about external influences on democratic consolidation.
Once these included other CEECs, from 2000, and advanced closer to actual accession from 2001, it followed that the third set of conditions became a more prominent concern. This obviously reflected a growing awareness that enlargement on this unprecedented scale was likely to take place and that the EU could be adversely affected if candidate countries had not sufficiently upgraded their capacity for prospective membership. In order to explore more exactly the EU’s scope for influence over regime change, five aspects are examined in turn with respect to the operation of its conditionality: the definitional handling of DC, whether this allowed for more of a strategy to be pursued and the changing content of DC, with a shift towards substantive democratic requirements; the changed role of EU institutions in the operation of DC; the process of monitoring DC; pre-accession institutional mechanisms and how far they reinforced DC; and, support programmes and how therefore DP related to it when combined with DC.
Designing Democracy: EU Enlargement and Regime Change in Post-Communist Europe by Geoffrey Pridham (auth.)