New PDF release: Deformation of Earth Materials: An Introduction to the

By Shun-ichiro Karato

ISBN-10: 0511394780

ISBN-13: 9780511394782

ISBN-10: 0521844045

ISBN-13: 9780521844048

A textbook for graduate scholars and researchers in geology, geophysics, fabrics technology, mineralogy and ceramics.

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Extra info for Deformation of Earth Materials: An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earth

Sample text

According to this equation, the energy of the system is independent of the orientation of the interface at which the reaction occurs, but the free energy change associated with a particular reaction under non-hydrostatic stress depends on the process that occurs at the crystal surface (or grain boundary). Consequently, the free energy change may depend on the orientation of the interface with respect to the applied stress at which the reaction occurs. To illustrate this point, let us consider the formation/destruction of a vacancy (dissolution/ precipitation of a stressed solid) into a grain boundary (or a liquid) (Fig.

When a material with a given chemical composition can assume several phases, then as the P, T conditions change, the phase with the minimum Gibbs free energy may change from one to another. In these cases, the stable phase for a material changes with these variables, and a phase transformation occurs. They include to transformation in quartz, order–disorder transformation in plagioclase, (olivine) to (wadsleyite) transformation in (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 and (bcc) to " (hcp) transformation in iron. A phase transformation may be classified into two groups.

A solid phase always contains, in this case, a finite amount of secondary component so that there is Effects of non-stoichiometry: a phase diagram for an open system The phase diagram considered above assumes that the chemical composition of each phase is independent of T and P except in cases where finite solubility of one component occurs in each phase. For example, a phase diagram for (Mg, Fe)O is usually constructed assuming that this is a two-component system (MgO and FeO) Deformation of Earth Materials assuming that the material exchange occurs only through Mg , Fe keeping the number of atoms in the (solid) system constant.

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Deformation of Earth Materials: An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earth by Shun-ichiro Karato

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