By Sanjeev Khagram
Enormous dams equipped for irrigation, strength, water offer, and different reasons have been one of the so much powerful symbols of monetary improvement for far of the 20th century. Of overdue they've got turn into a lightning rod for demanding situations to this imaginative and prescient of improvement as whatever deliberate through elites with scant regard for environmental and social consequences—especially for the populations which are displaced as their homelands are flooded. during this publication, Sanjeev Khagram strains alterations in our rules of what constitutes acceptable improvement in the course of the moving transnational dynamics of massive dam construction.
Khagram tells the tale of a becoming, yet contentious, international society that includes novel and more and more efficacious norms of acceptable habit in such components as human rights and environmental safeguard. The transnational coalitions and networks led through nongovernmental teams that espouse such norms could seem susceptible compared to states, enterprises, and such overseas corporations because the global financial institution. but they grew to become more and more potent at changing the rules and practices of those traditionally extra robust actors and corporations from the Seventies on.
Khagram develops those claims in an in depth ethnographic account of the transnational struggles round the Narmada River Valley Dam tasks in relevant India, an enormous complicated of thirty huge and greater than 3 thousand small dams. He deals additional substantiation via a comparative old research of the political financial system of massive dam initiatives in India, Brazil, South Africa, and China in addition to by way of studying the altering habit of overseas businesses and international businesses. the writer concludes with a dialogue of the area fee on Dams, an leading edge try within the overdue Nineteen Nineties to generate new norms between conflicting stakeholders.
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Additional resources for Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power
A variety of sources indicate that this figure either remained stagnant or continued to decline through the 1990s. 37 THE CHANGING INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT WITH RESPECT TO THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA Neither the absence of suitable sites nor the inefficiency of the Indian political and administrative framework can fully account for the rapid deceleration in the rate of completing big dam projects from the 1970s on. As noted above, the number of big dams proposed or under construction remained high and perhaps even increased during that decade.
A central cause of India's inability to implement the increasing number of big dam projects initiated was the complex political and administrative machinery that evolved during this period. 24 For example, although water was not officially made a concurrent subject to be coordinated by the Centre and regional states, a large degree of jurisdictional overlap emerged with respect to the federal distribution of authority in this area. 25 According to Entry 17 of the State List in the Indian Constitution, "Water, that is to say, water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water storage and water power;' was to be controlled by (regional) States in India.
93 Transnational Struggles for Water and Power 21 More generally, the political opportunities afforded by state institutions shape the strategies, tactics, and organizational forms of nongovernmental organizations, grassroots groups, social movements, and potentially their ultimate effectiveness. 94 With respect to impact, in particular, a fundamental feature of state institutions is the broad regime type that exists. Authoritarian regimes lower the costs and thus increase the ability for more powerful state and nonstate actors to violently repress opposing nongovernmental organizations, peoples' groups, and social movements.
Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power by Sanjeev Khagram