By United Nations
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Additional resources for Costs of Disarmament: Mortgaging the Future the South Asian Arms Dynamic
Rammanohar Reddy has provided an insight into the scale of the opportunity costs of India’s nuclear weaponization programme. ) Table 5: Opportunity Costs of India’s Nuclear Weaponization Programme (1998 prices)86 Military Programme Rupees (millions) US$ (millions) One nuclear bomb 4 1 3,200 rural houses One Agni missile 60 15 Annual operation costs of 15,000 primary healthcare centres Missile production facility 500 125 Drinking water for 37,000 villages Arsenal of 150 nuclear bombs 600 150 Central government funding of all public health programmes One nuclear powered sub-marine 4,000 1,000 Cost of 1,000 megawatt power plant 750 Central government expenditure on elementary education 1998-99 Annual cost of 3,000 weaponization (minimum expenditure) Total cost of weaponization Alternative Use of Resources 40-50,000 10-12,000 15 million rural houses or Incremental cost of providing universal primary education for all Indian children of four years and over NB: All costs are in current prices.
They are accumulating 27 stockpiles of fissile materials, mating warheads to missiles, and improving the accuracy and range of missiles. The testing of short- and medium-range missiles, such as the Pakistan’s Ghauri II and Shaheen II and India’s Prithvi and Agni II missiles is a highly destabilizing characteristic of the on-going nuclear arms race. High speeds and short distances would entail warning times of only a few minutes, an extremely undermining factor in situations of tension. One central problem with nuclear deterrence theory is the assumption of the rationality of the actors involved.
According to the World Bank debt build-up and the diversion of funds into the military have several adverse implications for development:120 • It makes an economy more vulnerable to exogenous political and economic shocks; • It squeezes development spending in order to contain budget deficits. In Pakistan for instance development spending fell from 10% of GDP in 1980 to less than 3% by 2000;121 • It stunts the development of human capital, which is at a premium in a globalize world economy; • It adversely affects the quality of life for the poor and marginalized through poor social provision; • It imposes cuts in public investment in infrastructure such as roads, power, water supply and irrigation, thus raising the cost of doing business; • It discourages private investment.
Costs of Disarmament: Mortgaging the Future the South Asian Arms Dynamic by United Nations