By Roy Jerome
Examines masculinity in German tradition, society, and literature from 1945 to the current.
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Extra info for Conceptions of Postwar German Masculinity
36 According to Gilmore, masculinity is connected to an accomplishment or ability that men must produce in order to be socially recognized. On the one hand, this situation produces (collective) cultural models of manhood, but on the other hand there results a constant worry and fear on the part of the individual about his masculinity. Images of masculinity, according to Gilmore, result from tests and rites of manhood, self-imposed challenges, and individual masculine symbols. 37 Based on these premises, it appears—and, I would add, this was still absolutely the case in premodern society—that the loss of KLAUS-MICHAEL BOGDAL 25 masculine identity is worse than death.
13 According to Helge Pross, the author of one of West Germany’s first inclusive studies on male sex roles, Die M¨anner, sex roles are “general behavioral rules which are added to the biological given ‘man’ and the biological given ‘woman’. . The rules contained within 18 Hard-Cold-Fast sex roles indicate which positional roles a man should normally assume, which a woman should assume. ”14 In this study, Pross takes as her point of departure the observation that in the society under examination—namely, West German postwar society— biological equality is effaced by social inequality, despite the assumption of democratic principles.
36. , 11. 37. , 245. 38. See Ute Frevert, Ehrenm¨anner. Das Duell in der b¨urgerliche Gesellschaft (M¨unchen: C. H. Beck, 1991). 39. , M¨annerbande-M¨annerb¨unde. Zur Rolle des Mannes im Kulturvergleich, 2 vols. (K¨oln: Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum, 1990). 40. See Bernd Widdig, M¨annerb¨unde und Masse. Zur Krise m¨annlicher Identit¨at in der Literatur der Moderne (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1992). 41. V¨olger and von Welck, xxi. 42. , xxii. 43. Ibid. 44. Since 1991, Suhrkamp Verlag has edited the series Gender Studies.
Conceptions of Postwar German Masculinity by Roy Jerome