Read e-book online Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application PDF

By J. Shore

ISBN-10: 0901956775

ISBN-13: 9780901956774

Concentrates at the chemical features of dyes and pigments, with emphasis on makes an attempt to interpret their colouring and fastness houses when it comes to the fundamental structural gains of colorant molecules.

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Additional resources for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties: Colorants

Sample text

56) derived from o-dianisidine, several dye manufacturers ceased production of these and other dyes made from these two diamines. 56 40 CLASSIFICATION AND GENERAL PROPERTIES OF COLORANTS The German government issued in July 1994 an amended regulation concerning consumer goods involved in direct body contact, including clothing, shoes and bedlinen. This banned the use of azo colorants that could be reduced to give any of twenty specified arylamines. These amines have been classified by the German MAK commission as substances that have been unequivocally proved to be carcinogenic.

Epidemiological studies first alerted the colorants industries to the causal links between certain manufacturing operations and an increased risk of bladder cancer among workers [1,60,86]. 28) manufacture [87]. Most responsible colorant manufacturers in Europe, Japan and the USA ceased production of benzidine-based dyes in the early 1970s due to inability to ensure their safe handling in dyehouses. However, owing to the attractive economic and technical merits of such dyes on leather and cellulosic fibres, manufacture continued in other parts of the world (for example, Latin America, India and the Asia Pacific region).

Mercury is used when sulphonating anthraquinones and copper when reacting arylamines with bromoanthraquinones. Much effort has been devoted to minimising the trace metal content of such colorants and in effluents from dyemaking plants. Metal salts are used as reactants in dye synthesis, particularly in the ranges of premetallised acid, direct or reactive dyes, which usually contain copper, chromium, nickel or cobalt. These structures are described in detail in Chapter 5, where the implications in terms of environmental problems are also discussed.

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Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties: Colorants by J. Shore

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