By Anthony McFarlane
This publication describes and analyzes financial and political advancements in Colombia throughout the ultimate century of Spanish rule. Its function is threefold: first, to supply a basic portrait of Colombian society in the course of the overdue colonial interval, exhibiting the nature of monetary, social, and political existence within the territory's imperative areas; moment, to evaluate the effect at the quarter of ecu imperialist enlargement in the course of the eighteenth century; and 3rd, to supply a context for knowing the motives of independence. The ebook bargains the single to be had survey of Colombian heritage and historiography for this era.
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Additional resources for Colombia before Independence: Economy, Society, and Politics under Bourbon Rule
The early vecinos of Bogota and Tunja also went farther afield, west of the River Magdalena. Around midcentury, they founded the towns of Ibague, Mariquita, Victoria, and Remedios, each of which became a focus for gold mining among the western tributaries of the Magdalena. These mining zones, together with those of Pamplona, formed one axis of the early colonial economy, providing the towns of New Granada with gold throughout the sixteenth century. But the richest deposits of gold were found far beyond the Kingdom of New Granada, in the south and west of Colombia.
Les retours des tresors americains d'apres les gazettes hollandaises (XVIe—XVIIIesiecles) (Cambridge, 1985), Table 4 1 , p. 242; Table 42, p. 250; Table 43, p. 262; Table 45, pp. 279—82. 39. Curtis Nettels, "England and the Spanish American Trade, 1680—1715," Journal of Modern History, vol. 3 (1931), pp. 1-33. Foundations 23 Thus, colonial resources were diverted to foreigners through contraband, in a pattern of illegal trade that was to present Bourbon governments with a persistent problem throughout the eighteenth century.
In the 1778-80 censuses, the population was divided into the usual four racial categories: whites, blacks, Indians, and "free people of all colors" (litres de todos colores). Of these, by far the largest single group was that of the libres or mestizos. By 1780, people of mixed race made up almost half (46%) of New Granada's population. Most of the rest were classified either as white (26%) or Indian (20%), followed by a substantial minority of black slaves (8%). The preponderance of the libres is striking.
Colombia before Independence: Economy, Society, and Politics under Bourbon Rule by Anthony McFarlane