By John (Jack) Hobbs, J. A. Lindesay, Howard A. Bridgman
This publication fills an important hole within the climatological literature; accomplished evaluation of the climates of the southern hemisphere. it's the first ebook of its variety to supply a consolidated view of the climates of southern Africa, Australia, South the United States and Antarctica, addressing prior and destiny climates in addition to these within the current.
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Extra info for Climates of the Southern Continents: Present, Past and Future
This vulnerability has been amply illustrated during the extended droughts and occasional flood events of the 1980s and 1990s (Glantz, 1987; Schulze, 1987; Vogel and Drummond, 1993; Vogel, 1994b), and is highlighted by the impacts of an expanding population on finite water resources (Mason and Joubert, 1995). g. Hulme, 1992; Unganai, 1992; Mason. g. , 1989; Katz and Brown, 1992), makes such research a priority. Adequate assessment of inter-annual climatic variability, as well as of climatic change, requires a comprehensive knowledge of the present climatology of southern Africa and adjacent oceans.
2), whereas along the south-west coast cold sea-surface temperatures (below 16°C in summer) characterise the Benguela upwelling region. The warm Angola Current extends southward along the north-west coast, but seldom penetrates beyond 10-15°S. In general the sea temperatures around the coasts influence the temperature and moisture characteristics of airmasses approaching the subcontinent, and are reflected in a rainfall gradient from wetter eastern to arid western regions south of 20°S. 2 Sea-surface temperatures (°C) of the oceans adjacent to southern Africa, in January and July (after Schulze, 1972; Hastenrath and Lamb, 1977, 1979a; Höflich, 1984) where the Agulhas turns east along the Subtropical Convergence in a feature known as the Agulhas Retroflection.
4a). 4b) and convection is suppressed. 4c); wave I accounts for more than 70 per cent of the variance in annual 500 hPa heights at 30°S, while wave 3 accounts for more than 10 per cent of the variance between 35 and 65°S (van Loon, 1972b; van Loon and Jenne, 1972; Trenberth, 1979, 1980; Wallace, 1983; Mo and van Loon, 1984; Mo and White, 1985). In the southern hemisphere the low-number waves are equivalent barotropic in structure and are quasi-stationary (Trenberth, 1980). If these large-scale features undergo any shift in amplitude (latitude) and/or phase (longitude) on a short time scale the result is an immediate alteration in weather patterns over the southern parts of the region.
Climates of the Southern Continents: Present, Past and Future by John (Jack) Hobbs, J. A. Lindesay, Howard A. Bridgman