By Carmen de Jong, David N. Collins, Roberto Ranzi
A complete assessment of interaction of the significant hydrological and meteorological tactics in mountain parts ie Cryosphere and Climatic switch, Snow soften and Soil Water, Run-off and Floods, Water fluxes and Water stability, Hydro-meteorological Coupling and Modelling. each one part will review recent learn within the box and illustrate key interactions with case experiences from mountainous areas in Europe, The Americas and valuable Asia.
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Another possible explanation for this behaviour is an increase in reﬂected diffuse radiation as the sun hit the penitentes’ wall from the west at a very low angle. l. DOY 37, 6th of February. Note the increasing albedo in the afternoon, an explanatory hypothesis is given in the text Surface energy balance of high altitude glaciers in the central andes: the effect of snow penitentes quadrant, adds support to this hypothesis, although the causes are not clear yet. 2 Long-wave radiation The incoming long-wave radiation depends on the temperature and composition of the overlying atmosphere, and in mountainous terrain the surrounding relief and snow cover will have an important effect on the total radiative budget (Olyphant 1986).
The most remarkable aspect is the very low relative humidity. High values were normally associated with the presence of clouds, sometimes enveloping the AWS. Relative humidity follows a diurnal cycle, with maxima due to nocturnal cooling and minima normally related to katabatic winds. Winds were light to moderate and fairly constant. Incoming solar radiation was very intense, with average values close to those of perfectly clear days and peaks exceeding 1700 W m−2 at the upper AWS. These peaks were higher than the exoatmospheric radiation and were probably caused by enhanced downward ﬂux because of forward scattering of light by large cumulonimbus.
An automatic weather station (AWS) was installed on the snow surface and it collected data from 30 November to 11 December 2000 on Juncal and from 22 January to 24 February 2001 on Loma Larga. The instruments were carried with the help of local arrieros and mules from the nearest road to the base camp near the glacier snout and then by the researchers to the glacier location. Edited by C. de Jong, D. Collins and R. 1 The area of study in the Chilean Andes, about 33◦ S 70◦ W. In the right upper photograph, Juncal Norte is the main glacier at the lower centre of the image, ﬂowing north.
Climate and Hydrology of Mountain Areas by Carmen de Jong, David N. Collins, Roberto Ranzi