By John E.J. Schmitz
This monograph condenses the suitable and pertinent literature on blanket and selective CVD of tungsten (W) right into a unmarried achievable quantity. The ebook provides the reader with the mandatory historical past to elevate, high quality song, and effectively continue a CVD-W procedure in a creation set-up. fabrics deposition chemistry, apparatus, method expertise, advancements, and purposes are defined.
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Extra resources for Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten and Tungsten Silicides for VLSI/ ULSI Applications
Degree of planarization (DOP): The blanket tungsten process is in fact a planarization method for contacts and vias. 22). This cannot be tolerated since shorts between aluminum lines will occur. In a detailed study [de Graaf et aI.
This is a purely arbitrary definition but has been proven to work in practice. In an ideal case we want to have 100% step coverage, that is the growth rate at each surface is equal. 009 a Step cov. Thp. Rate % Nmin 80 53 250 588 1170 25 Data from ref. =430oC, P tot =200 mTorr Why is the step coverage of such an importance? 5). If the step coverage is lower than 100% there will be a cavity (or void) formed during the deposition; a so-called key hole. The size of this key hole depends on the magnitude of the step coverage.
Joshi et. a1. 51 and Clark et. a1. 52 confirmed these results and expanded the pressure range up to 80 Torr. By going to higher pressures one other advantage appears, namely, the roughness of the film decreases. 11). 12) can be much smaller. See chapter V for more details about film roughness. Is there an upper limit for the pressure with respect to the step coverage? The answer depends on what approach is taken. McInerney et. al. 13). At low pressure the step coverage is not optimal because the WF6 pressure at the contact inlet is not high enough to prevent the WF6 "zero" pressure condition in the contact during late growth stages.
Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten and Tungsten Silicides for VLSI/ ULSI Applications by John E.J. Schmitz