Download e-book for iPad: Chemical Process and Design Handbook by James Speight

By James Speight

ISBN-10: 0071374337

ISBN-13: 9780071374330

Control chemical tactics to get the consequences you will have

worthwhile to chemical and environmental engineers in addition to method designers, Chemical strategy and layout guide indicates you the way to manage chemical techniques to yield wanted results successfully and economically. The booklet examines all the significant chemical procedures, resembling reactions, separations, blending, heating, cooling, strain swap, and particle dimension aid and expansion -- in logically prepared alphabetical chapters, giving you an knowing of the basic qualitative research of every. The guide, from professional James Speight:

  • Emphasizes chemical conversions -- chemical reactions utilized to business processing
  • presents easy-to-understand descriptions to give an explanation for reactor variety and layout
  • Describes the newest approach advancements and attainable destiny advancements or adjustments

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Sample text

Acetaldehyde was first prepared by Scheele in 1774, by the action of manganese dioxide (MnO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on ethyl alcohol (ethanol, CH3CH2OH). CH3CH2OH + [O] → CH3CH=O + H2O Commercially, passing alcohol vapors and preheated air over a silver catalyst at 480oC carries out the oxidation. With a multitubular reactor, conversions of 74 to 82 percent per pass can be obtained while generating steam to be used elsewhere in the process. The formation of acetaldehyde by the addition of water to acetylene was observed by Kutscherow in 1881.

In the case of liquid-phase reactions in which oxidation is secured by means of atmospheric oxygen—for example, the oxidation of liquid hydrocarbons to fatty acids—special means must be provided to secure adequate mixing and contact of the two immiscible phases of gaseous oxidizing agent and the liquid being oxidized. Although temperature must be controlled and heat removed, the requirements are not severe, since the temperatures are generally low and the rate of heat generation controllable by regulation of the rate of air admission.

Furthermore, the smoothness of the reaction depends on the dispersion of the reacting material as it comes in contact with the change in the nitration vessel so that a fairly uniform temperature is maintained throughout the vessel. Nitration vessels are usually equipped with one of three general types of agitating mechanism: (1) single or double impeller, (2) propeller or turbine, with cooling sleeve, and (3) outside tunnel circulation. The single-impeller agitator consists of one vertical shaft containing horizontal arms.

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Chemical Process and Design Handbook by James Speight

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