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By Stephen R Bolsover; et al

ISBN-10: 0471263931

ISBN-13: 9780471263937

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Cellulose makes up the cell wall of plants and is the world’s most abundant macromolecule. Like glycogen, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, but this time the links are β1→4. 10b. Drawn on the flat page, it looks very like glycogen. However, the difference in bond type is critical. 10. The polysaccharides glycogen and cellulose. ideal for building the rigid plant cell wall. Animals have enzymes (protein catalysts) that can break down the α(1→4) bond in glycogen, but only certain bacteria and fungi can break the β(1→4) link in cellulose.

Hyams, Elizabeth A. Shephard, Hugh A. White, Claudia G. Wiedemann ISBN 0-471-26393-1 Copyright C 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1. Water is a polar molecule while the chlorine molecule is nonpolar. to indicate that it is smaller than the charge on a single hydrogen nucleus. The oxygen atom has the small net negative charge 2δ−. Molecules that, like water, have positive regions sticking out one side and negative regions sticking out the other are called polar. 1b shows a molecule of chlorine gas.

The electron is left behind on the now negatively charged lactate ion. 4. Ionic compounds dissolve readily in water. 5. Acids and bases, respectively, give up and accept H+ when dissolved in water. For convenience we often write this as CH3 CH(OH)COOH → CH3 CH(OH)COO− + H+ Here we are using H+ as a convenient symbol to denote H3 O+ . We do not mean that there are real H+ ions, that is, bare hydrogen nuclei, in aqueous solutions. The equilibrium constant, K a for the dissociation of lactic acid, is defined as Ka = [CH3 CH(OH)COO− ]e [H+ ]e [CH3 CH(OH)COOH]e where the square brackets refer, by convention, to concentrations and the subscripts, e, denote that these are the concentrations of each species at equilibrium.

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Cell biology : a short course by Stephen R Bolsover; et al

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