By Otmar D. Wiestler, Bernhard Haendler, D. Mumberg
Cancer stem cells have initially been pointed out in leukemia and later in numerous sturdy tumor kinds. they've got very various homes from the majority of the tumor as they divide even more slowly and feature very effective drug resistance mechanisms. present remedies may well principally spare melanoma stem cells. This ebook appears at fresh advancements within the box of melanoma stem cells and the prospective effect for the id of novel remedy paradigms for cancer.
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Extra info for Cancer stem cells : novel concepts and prospects for tumor therapy
This observation raised the hypothesis that sustained elevated levels of c-Myc activity prevent the maintenance of epidermal stem cells (ESCs) in areas of high tissue renewal and repair. This theory is supported by the observation that putative epidermal stem cells, identified as BrdU “label-retaining cells”, are severely depleted within K14-Myc hypoplastic epidermis (Waikel et al. 2001). Epidermal loss was also observed in mice lacking Rac1, a small GTP-binding protein of the Rho family that controls cell adhesion and cytoskeletal architecture, in the epidermis (Benitah et al.
Wnt-5a is upregulated in some cancers (Saitoh et al. 2002) and can increase invasion of metastatic melanoma in a β-catenin- Wnt Signaling in Stem Cells and Lung Cancer 39 independent manner (Weeraratna et al. 2002). Yet, Wnt-5a also behaves as a tumor suppressor gene in hematopoietic malignancies (Liang et al. 2003). The role of Wnt-5a in human sarcoma and in the development of lung metastases (Nakano et al. 2003) raises interest in its role in primary lung cancer. Indeed, a recent study in 123 patients with NSCLC (Huang et al.
The real significance of β-catenin expression in lung cancer has yet to be elucidated. Its controversial role might be linked to its complex effects since β-catenin also functions as a cadherin-mediated cell adhesion component (Barker et al. 2000). Moreover, mutations in the β-catenin gene appear uncommon in lung cancer. Sunaga et al. screened 46 lung cancer cell lines and 47 primary tissues and found mutations in the β-catenin gene, CTNNB1, in only 1 cell line and 2 surgical specimens, all adenocarcinomas, suggesting that genetic alteration of CTNNB1 is rare in lung cancer and restricted to the adenocarcinoma subtype (Sunaga et al.
Cancer stem cells : novel concepts and prospects for tumor therapy by Otmar D. Wiestler, Bernhard Haendler, D. Mumberg