By Eric S. Lander, Michael S. Waterman
During this first-ever survey of the partnership among arithmetic and biology, top specialists examine how mathematical study and techniques have made attainable very important discoveries in biology. Explores how differential geometry, topology, and differential mechanics have allowed researchers to "wind" and "unwind" DNA's double helix to appreciate the phenomenon of supercoiling. Explains how mathematical instruments are revealing the workings of enzymes and proteins. Describes how mathematicians are detecting echoes from the starting place of existence through using the stochastic and statictical idea to the research of DNA sequences.
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Extra info for Calculating the secrets of life - mathematics in molecular biology
Peltier et al. 5, and evaluated Ni bioavailability using a biosensor. At pH 6, where surface precipitates did not form, most of the Ni was bioavailable. 11 Dissolution of Ni from surface precipitates formed on pyrophyllite at residence times of 1 h to 2 years. 0. L. Sparks. 2001a. Dissolution kinetics of nickel surface precipitates on clay mineral and oxide surfaces. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:685–694. ) were observed to form from XAS analyses, Ni bioavailability was markedly reduced. , 1999; Ford and Sparks, 2000).
G. L. Sparks. 1999. The role of Al in the formation of secondary Ni precipitates on pyrophyllite, gibbsite, talc, and amorphous silica: A DRS study. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63:3193–3203, Copyright 1999. ) Ni hydroxide precipitates, using the same environmental conditions employed by Scheidegger et al. (1996b, 1997) and reaction times ranging from 1 h to 5 years. Although the precipitate phase had a bonding environment similar to Ni-Al LDH, the precipitate was amorphous. , 1999a, 1999b; Ford and Sparks, 2000).
There are several disadvantages in using bulk XAS to speciate contaminants in heterogeneous systems such as soils. Soils are complex and contain an array of inorganic and organic components, including humic substances, clay minerals, metal hydr(oxides), macro- and micropores, and microorganisms, all closely associated with each other. , % comp. 9 Anatomy of a μ-XAFS experiment. , R. L. Sparks. 2005b. Shining light on metals in the environment. Elements 1:211–216. , hotspots) are selected and further probed using the microfocused x-ray beam.
Calculating the secrets of life - mathematics in molecular biology by Eric S. Lander, Michael S. Waterman