By Roger Harvey, Eric Sévigny
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Thus, oxidation reactions are biogeochemical. , oxalic, humic, and fulvic), are all products of biological activity from root/heterotrophic microbial respiration and decay of organic matter and products of the mycorrhizal community, particularly soil fungi, producers of oxalic acid. Lichenic acids are also clearly biogenic. Inorganic acids that attack minerals are produced by sulfur bacteria (sulfuric acid) and nitrifying bacteria (converting ammonium ion to nitric acid). High sulfuric acid levels in soils are found over rocks with high sulﬁde contents and as a result of mining (Berner and Berner 1987).
006 percent of the atmosphere that is carbon dioxide produced by human action. By this comparison, green plants put roughly 3,000 times as much gas into the atmosphere as power plants” (p. 24). Here Easterbrook confuses concentration with ﬂux. Comparing ﬂuxes, photosynthesis pumps THE BIOCHEMICAL CYCLE OF CARBON 20 Image Not Available -. Carbon ﬂuxes and the soil. The amount of carbon in each reservoir is in Pg (1015 g), the ﬂux in Pg/year. Steady state is assumed. The relatively small ﬂux of carbon from animals to soil is not shown.
A higher F1 in the early Precambrian is consistent with suggestions that higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels then resulted in greater oceanic productivities than now (Rothschild and Mancinelli 1990) and possibly greater organic carbon burial rates. Perhaps in the early Archean, high marine productivities were associated with hydrothermal vent sites (de Ronde and Ebbesen 1996). This conjecture may be supported by the apparently isotopically heavier kerogen record up to about 3 Ga. If ␦in is interpreted as in case (ii) and has been nearly constant since the early Precambrian, and assuming ␦13C for F1,F2 and F3,F4 ﬂuxes correspond to the measured values of preserved carbonate and organic carbon, respectively, then the inversion of the sedimentary carbon isotopic record (Des Marais et al.
Caillou and the Rain by Roger Harvey, Eric Sévigny