By Peter Sonnenfeld
About The Product
Published through the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Short classes in Geology Series.
This direction is designed to give basic ideas and constraints of evaporitic mineral precipitation in numerous depositional environments, a dialogue of the focus of attendant accent accumulations of clastics, base metals and hydrocarbons, an built-in assessment of epigenetic alteration of evaporite deposits, and a scientific research of historical evaporite basin configurations.
These notes current case histories of present evaporite deposition within the desire that they are going to give you the keys to a greater figuring out of old salt basins.
The facts offered the following primarily depend on basins studied via the writer and his coworkers. even though this selection might seem a little bit restricted to a couple readers acquainted with classical types, the examples proven right here disguise the most present-day geological settings. in addition, observations on pre-evaporitic deposits have been additionally brought.
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Extra resources for Brines and Evaporites
Both the sylviteand the rinneitesuggest precipitationin a coveredbrine with no contact to the atmosphere. ,5 MgCI 2 ,'. ',, '• c: ... ,. :_• fluid inclusions • '7-, Fig. 8. Primary sylvite-carnallite relationship. Any hydrogensulfide in the brine wouldhave precipitatedpyrite. In nature, true primary bischofitehas so far not been documented. Bischofiteoccursin nature in Permian sulfatized potashhorizonsdue to an al- teration of carnallite by percolatingwaters. Here it is a secondaryprecipitate containing inclusions of kieseriteand anhydrite.
The swellingof clays decreases linearly with rising sodiumand potassiumconcentration, exponentially with magnesium concentration. Theequilibriumm of alumosilicates and seawaterlies at temperaturesabove25øC within the Mgochloritefield or below quartz saturation even down to a pH below 8. Iron is also leached out at the same time. The presenceof brucite pillars in the clay lattices representsthe best evidence for such a high pH. If epigenetic brines contain enough potassium, the clays eventually convert to illites.
That meansthat they do not representterminal depositsprior to completedesiccation, but are followed by precipitatesof a progressivelydiluting brine. Conversely, all major halite depositscontain some potashhorizons. The two primary potash minerals are sylvite and carnallite. Potassium-calcium and sodium-calcium chloridemineralsare not known;all K-Mg-sulfatesare of secondary origin due to the influx of oxygenatedmeteoric,continentalwaters that attacked either sylvite or carnallite. Secondary K-Ca-, Na-, and Na-Ca-sulfates and carbonates are also found.
Brines and Evaporites by Peter Sonnenfeld