By BIOTOL, B C Currell, R C E Dam-Mieras
Demonstrates how organic catalysis should be utilized to the creation of price extra chemical substances. Use is made from a various diversity of case stories to provide a breadth of expertise. It additionally unearths how bio-systems are being hired to supply a variety of beneficial commodities together with antibiotics and different therapeutics, middleman metabolites reminiscent of citrate, malate, gels and different necessary polymers.
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Extra resources for Biotechnological Innovations in Chemical Synthesis
2 1. 3 Determination of maintenance energy requirement and maximum biomass yield Cells need a certain amount of energy for maintenance. The maintenance energy is, for instance, needed for maintaining the proton motive force which is, among other purposes, used for maintaining the ion gradients across the cell membrane. Furthermore, energy is needed for the turnover of proteins and mRNA, for repair and for movement (if mobile). Maintenance energy requirements can be defined in terms of rate of substrate consumption per unit of biomass for maintenance: this is known as the maintenance coefficient (m).
This problem may be overcome using a continuous cascade (multi-stage)reactor, in which substrate concentrationnear the outflow of the bioreactor is reduced to the same low levels characteristicof fed-batch processes. In multi-stage continuous processes, conditions for growth and/or product formation may vary considerably between stages, which may have considerable benefits for the process. For example, in secondary product processes, where product formation takes place after growth has ceased, the first stage of the multi-stage process may be optimised for growth with subsequent stages optimised for product formation, in the absence of growth.
As far as damage to bacterial cells is concerned, the main hydrodynamic effects on appendages, particularly flagella that can have lengths many times that of the cells, can lead to stripping of such appendages with subsequent release of cell contents. Selection of a more robust fungus or bacterium may enhance the commercial success of the process. Micro-organisms with resistance to environmental stresses such as solvents, extremes of pH, high salt concentration, and having broad temperature and dissolved oxygen optima are more suited to process applications.
Biotechnological Innovations in Chemical Synthesis by BIOTOL, B C Currell, R C E Dam-Mieras