By Michael Himmel
Replacement and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass supply a promising substitute to traditional strength resources, and supply strength safeguard, fiscal progress, and environmental merits. besides the fact that, plant cellphone partitions evidently withstand decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this collective resistance is named "biomass recalcitrance". step forward applied sciences are had to triumph over obstacles to constructing cost-efficient procedures for changing biomass to fuels and chemical compounds. This ebook examines the relationship among biomass constitution, ultrastructure, and composition, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the purpose of learning new low-cost applied sciences for biorefineries. It includes chapters on subject matters extending from the top degrees of biorefinery layout and biomass life-cycle research, to targeted features of plant mobile wall constitution, chemical remedies, enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation techniques. Biomass Recalcitrance is key analyzing for researchers, strategy chemists and engineers operating in biomass conversion, additionally plant scientists operating in mobilephone wall biology and plant biotechnology.
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Additional info for Biomass recalcitrance: deconstructing the plant cell wall for bioenergy
Edited by Michael. E. Himmel © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 1 Agricultural and forest land resource potential. resource potential, biochemical conversion process yields were used for the agronomic resource potential, and thermochemical process yields were used for the forestry resources. Biochemical- and thermochemical-to-ethanol yields are from Foust and coworkers (4). In 2006, motor gasoline demand in the United States was approximately 143 billion gallons per year (5), so the ultimate potential for biofuels would be to supply approximately 60% of current gasoline demand on an energy basis.
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) web site defines biorefineries (8) as follows: A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today’s petroleum refineries, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. Industrial biorefineries have been identified as the most promising route to the creation of a new domestic bio-based industry. By producing multiple products, a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock while also being able to adapt to changing market conditions.
The more uniform chemical composition of the feedstocks is in the macro sense, recognizing that in the micro sense there can be considerable variability. Biomass grown specifically for transportation fuel production can be engineered or selected to have the most desirable chemical and physical properties for a conversion technology. In addition, increasing the biomass resource base that can be biochemically converted to fuels provides an additional resource: lignin-rich fermentation residues that can be used for combined heat and power production or converted to biofuel in advanced, integrated biochemical–thermochemical biorefineries.
Biomass recalcitrance: deconstructing the plant cell wall for bioenergy by Michael Himmel