By Brigitte Voit, Rainer Haag, Dietmar Appelhans, Petra B. Welzel
This reference/text addresses ideas and artificial options for the instruction of polymers for state of the art use in biomedicine, man made biology, and bionanotechnology.
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Additional info for Bio- and multifunctional polymer architectures : preparation, analytical methods and applications
Consequently, the initiating radical species R· and the oxidized metal complex are formed. At this point, R· can add monomer units to enable chain propagation, or else it can react with the halogen on the oxidized metal to regenerate the dormant species R─X. The activation constant Kact leading to a free radical at the growing chain end is low compared to the deactivation constant Kdeact, and there fore, the equilibrium is strongly on the side of the dormant species reducing the amount of free radicals.
They found that the Kumada polycondensation into regioregular poly(3‐alkylthiophenes) follows the chain growth but not the step growth mechanism, as it was believed for years. 26) . 26 Concept of the Kumada catalyst transfer polycondensation. dppp, propane‐1,3‐diylbis(diphenylphosphane); TM, transmetallation; RE, reductive elimination; OA, oxidative addition. In the key step, responsible for the unusual chain growth character of the polycondensation, a Ni(0) species formed at the reductive elimination step, associates with the nearest thiophene ring forming an associated pair, then “moves” toward a growing polymer chain end, and finally inserts intramolecu larly into the terminal C─Br bond.
Its flexibility has significant influence on the thermodynamic description, as noticeably different symmetry factors for very flexible and very rigid ligands have to be taken into consideration here. 8 BIONANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology deals with the design, synthesis, study, and application of materials at the nanometer scale, that is, sizes of about 1–100 nm. When it is used in connection with biology or medicine, it is referred to as bionanotechnology or nanobiotechnology. Both terms are often used synonymous to describe the interdisciplinary technology that sits at the interphase between nanotechnology and biological systems.
Bio- and multifunctional polymer architectures : preparation, analytical methods and applications by Brigitte Voit, Rainer Haag, Dietmar Appelhans, Petra B. Welzel