By Darshan Singh Sarai
Water and wastewater operators desire an realizing of chemistry to correctly perform the chemical stages of therapy, together with coagulation, sedimentation, softening, and disinfection.
Knowledge of simple chemistry can be required to go operator certification examinations. Operators gets the learning they wish during this chemistry primer adapted only for operators of ingesting water or wastewater platforms
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The following table has formula weights of some compounds: Compound Formula Weight Water, H2O (1 × 2) + 16 = 18 Methane, CH4 12 + (1 × 4) = 16 Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 40 + (16 × 2) + (1 × 2) = 74 The gram formula weight of a compound is its mole because it contains an Avogadro number of its formulae. 02 × 1023 H2O molecules = 18 g = 1 mol of water The percentage composition of a compound is the percentage by mass of various constituent elements in a compound. Percentage is parts per 100 parts.
Helium’s electronic structure is 1s2, lithium is ls22s1, and sodium is 1s22s22p63sl. The sum of the superscripts is, therefore, the atomic number of the element. Each period starts with an element with one electron in its outermost shell and ends with the element at a stable state. There are two stable states in the atoms: two electrons in the K shell, when it is the only shell as in the case of the elements in period 1, and eight electrons in the outermost shell, when more than one shell is present.
Has a definite composi- 1. Components may be tion by weight. present in any proportion. 2. Usually, there is evidence of chemical change in a compound formation in the form of heat or light. 2. No such evidence. book Page 26 Monday, February 18, 2002 5:03 PM Basic Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Operators Compound Mixture 3. Components lose their identities and cannot be separated mechanically. 3. Components retain their identities and can be separated by mechanical means. Examples of compounds are water, carbon dioxide, etc.
Basic Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Operators by Darshan Singh Sarai