By John Douglas M.Sc. Ph.D. D.I.C. M.I.Biol (auth.)
The contribution of bacteriophages to the improvement of contemporary biology can't be over priced but, sixty years after their discovery, they're as distant and mysterious to many scientists as they're to such a lot laymen. This ebook endeavours to treatment the location: an try has been made to supply, in quite simply understandable shape, a nucleus of data necessary to a person embarking at the examine of bacteriophages or utilizing them of their paintings for the 1st time. It exhibits the variety of bacteriophage constitution and behavior; it illustrates the function of bacteriophage in molecular biology; it surveys the present state-of-the-art; it provides the clinical and commercial facets. a few uncomplicated experimental methods are given in enough aspect for the newbie to aim them effectively. different, extra subtle seasoned cedures are awarded so one can impart a sense of intimate truth with out fabulous the reader with technical complexity. i am hoping that younger readers will forgive me for assuming that they have got a few wisdom of micro organism, nucleic acids, antibodies and isotopes. Likewise i might ask mature employees to excuse the omission of loved specialities. To have incorporated a lot of these, worthwhile although they're, may have positioned this e-book past the re ach of the phage-novices for whom it's meant. particular references, store some of specific curiosity, were passed over. different books on bacteriophage v vi BACTERIOPHAGES offer them in abundance.
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Extra resources for Bacteriophages
48 BACTERIOPHAGES particles are mixed with a solution of an electron-opaque salt such as potassium phosphotungstate or uranyl acetate before application to the filmed grid. The salt does not penetrate the specimen but produces electron-dense interstices between partides and between the monomers that compose them so that a reversed image is obtained when compared to positively stained specimens. It should be noted that shadow casting increases the apparent size of particles due to the thickness of the metal coating whereas negative staining re duces it as the stain lies above and below the real edge of the structure.
Be10w is an outline answer to the whole question foHowed by detailed consideration of two important specific aspects. o 5 Minutes post-inlection 10 15 ... 1 Disappearanee 01 baeterial nueleus 20 : ; li 25 1111 ~ Funetional baeterial DNA present Synthesisol baeterial DNA eeases ~ Phage DNA deteetable Phage DNA condensates appear Net RNA synthesis eeases Phage protein' sp8eilie detectable RNA deteetable 'Early .. M. 3 Observations on T2-Infected Cells of E. coli During the Latent Period The diagram summarises the findings of several authors.
The spread-out molecules are picked up on a filmed grid. Platinum shadowing is applied at a very low ('grazing') angle while the specimen is rotated to achieve deposition on all sides of the molecule but not over it. 2 Negative staining This is useful in revealing the fine details of phage structure, including the shapes of some individual monomers. The Electron beom A . etron-lueent oreos - - --- B. 16 Positive and Negative Staining for Electron Microscopy Positive staining is hardly used in bacteriophage studies except in the examination of sections of infected bacteria (see para.
Bacteriophages by John Douglas M.Sc. Ph.D. D.I.C. M.I.Biol (auth.)