By Ian N. Scobie
Diabetes mellitus is an exceptionally universal sickness that's achieving epidemic proportions due to significant raises within the occurrence of weight problems and the propensity for a sedentary lifestyles. the necessity for physicians to familiarize themselves with all types of diabetes is key and the Atlas of Diabetes Mellitus is going far towards making the duty more uncomplicated for either certified physicians and people in education.
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The beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are the single cells within the physique that produce and secrete insulin. This metabolic hormone performs a critical position within the upkeep of glucose homeostasis, regulating glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue in addition to carbohydrate, fats, and protein metabolism in those tissues and the liver.
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Additional resources for Atlas of Diabetes Mellitus, Third Edition (Encyclopedia of Visual Medicine)
9% lower than conventional treatment, was associated with significant reductions in the risk of microvascular endpoints. The UKPDS has demonstrated the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes and the need to employ combination treatments and insulin to achieve target goals. 5%. Dietary modification and physical activity are the mainstay of treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, it is well recognized that only a minority of type 2 diabetes patients are able to achieve long-term glycemic control by such measures alone.
It must also include an assessment of blood glucose levels. As mentioned above, a false assessment of the degree of control established can be made if this only includes the patient’s own blood results. Measurement of HbA1c or total HbA1 must also be included when assessing control and is complementary to the patient’s results. Normal selfmonitored blood glucose results in the presence of elevated HbA1c usually imply either falsification of results, an inability to perform the test properly or a fault in the blood glucose meter, if one is being used.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the first-phase insulin response and a diminished second-phase response 22 Scobie Chapter 02 28/7/06 11:35 Page 23 PATHOGENESIS The biochemical consequences of insulin deficiency 1. ↑ Glycogenolysis ↑ Gluconeogenesis 2. ↑ Proteolysis 3. ↑ Lipolysis 4. ↑ Ketogenesis ketogenic glucogenic Liver Muscle Adipose tissue Liver ↑ Glucose ↑ Amino acids ↑ Glycerol ↑ Free fatty acids ↑ 3-Hydroxybutyrate ↑ Acetoacetate Osmotic diuresis Metabolic acidemia Dehydration Figure 22 Insulin deficiency results in increased hepatic glucose production and, hence, hyperglycemia by increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis.
Atlas of Diabetes Mellitus, Third Edition (Encyclopedia of Visual Medicine) by Ian N. Scobie