By I. M. Kutasov
The aim of utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is to offer in a transparent and concise shape tools of using the knowledge of temperature surveys in deep boreholes in addition to the result of box, laboratory and analytical investigations in geothermics to a large viewers. even supposing a few features of the topic of this ebook were mentioned in numerous earlier books and diverse papers, utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is the 1st e-book in this subject to be had to the petroleum engineering neighborhood. the target of the publication is to offer the nation of information and prediction of downhole and formations temperatures in the course of good drilling, good of entirety, shut-in and construction. utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is meant for drilling engineers (impact of increased temperatures on good drilling and final touch expertise, Arctic drilling), creation engineers (temperature regime of construction, injection and geothermal partitions, Arctic production), reservoir engineers (temperature box of reservoirs, thermal homes of formations and formation fluids), good logging engineers (interpretation of electric resistance, dust density, and temperature logs), and geophysicists and geologists (interpretation of geophysical information, calculation of the terrestrial warmth movement, reconstruction of prior climates).
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Extra info for Applied Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers
In this table W d is the ratio (in percent) of total ice-water content to dry unit weight of the soil. 5 submerged frozen soil is very i m p o r t a n t for the upper layer of frozen b o t t o m sediments. , 1973). 69) where a and b are constants. 13 shows the relation between compressive strength and t e m p e r a t u r e examined for various types of sand at salt concentrations of 0% and 3% and Fig. 14 presents a similar relation examined for cohesive soils. The compressive strength of frozen soils is very much dependent on the amount of the unfrozen water.
It is known that only a part of the formation's pore water changes to the ice at O~ With further lowering of the temperature, phase transition of the water continues, but at steadily decreasing rates. The amount of unfrozen water is practically independent of the total moisture content for a given soil (Tsytovich, 1975). Frozen soils are bodies in which stresses and strains that arise under the influence of an external constant load are not constant, but vary with time, giving rise to relaxation of stresses and creep (an increase in the strains with passage of time).
O5 I000# / > / /oe 9 3000~ z%4__ / / / I ..... t___ o 0 } ,... 5. Influence of fluid velocity on the longitudinal thermal dispersity of a porous medium (Bia and Comparnous, 1975). 595 x R a ~ shows the effect of heat convection on the heat transfer. An example of the effective thermal conductivity increase with fluid velocity is shown in Fig. 5. 4. 33) where P r is the Prandtl number, R a is the Rayleigh number, u is kinematic viscosity, a is thermal diffusivity, g is gravitational acceleration, /3 coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion, rl is the inner radius (outside radius of the drill pipe), r2 is the outer radius (inside radius of the casing or well radius), and A T is the radial temperature difference.
Applied Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers by I. M. Kutasov