By Xiaodong Chen, Clive G. Parini, Brian Collins, Yuan Yao, Masood Ur Rehman
Chapter 1 basics of GNSS (pages 1–19):
Chapter 2 primary issues for GNSS Antennas (pages 21–40):
Chapter three satellite tv for pc GNSS Antennas (pages 41–53):
Chapter four Terminal GNSS Antennas (pages 55–80):
Chapter five Multimode and complex Terminal Antennas (pages 81–110):
Chapter 6 Terminal Antennas in tricky Environments (pages 111–148):
Chapter 7 Human consumer results on GNSS Antennas (pages 149–180):
Chapter eight cellular Terminal GNSS Antennas (pages 181–206):
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Additional resources for Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems
8 Galileo navigation array on spacecraft body model. Taken from ; copyright EurAAP; used with permission. presented to it by the BFN. Details of the method employed for Galileo can be found in . Helical arrays are a very popular choice of antenna for spacecraft and indeed the Sputnik satellite in 1957 brandished a helical antenna . 8. Taken from ; copyright EurAAP; used with permission. 10 Galileo search and rescue helical antenna array on spacecraft body model. Taken from ; copyright EurAAP; used with permission.
To combat this challenge, the majority of GPS antennas on mobile phones are of the space-saving LP type, in the form of PIFAs (Planar Inverted-F Antennas) or IFAs (Inverted-F Antennas). In order to compensate the lower effective antenna gain of an LP antenna, a low-noise ampliﬁer (LNA) is usually used together with the antenna. Though CP patch antennas, usually on a high-permittivity ceramic substrate, are still employed in some handsets, studies have shown that the advantage of a CP antenna disappears in a complex operating environment with rich multipath .
Although the antenna farms are complex high-value systems, the antenna designer can infer useful techniques that can be translated into constructing specialised GNSS user antennas. 1 shows the level of complexity of an antenna farm for the GPS III satellite. A typical spacecraft antenna farm consists of a number of antenna systems including: • • • • L-band downlink array that provides the L1, L2 and L5 navigation signals. UHF uplink array for search and rescue. S-B and TT&C (Tracking Telemetry & Control) up- and downlinks.
Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems by Xiaodong Chen, Clive G. Parini, Brian Collins, Yuan Yao, Masood Ur Rehman