New PDF release: A History of Mechanics

By René Dugas

ISBN-10: 0486656322

ISBN-13: 9780486656328

"A notable paintings with the intention to stay a rfile of the 1st rank for the historian of mechanics." — Louis de Broglie
In this masterful synthesis and summation of the technological know-how of mechanics, Rene Dugas, a number one pupil and educator on the famed Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, bargains with the evolution of the foundations of normal mechanics chronologically from their earliest roots in antiquity during the center a while to the innovative advancements in relativistic mechanics, wave and quantum mechanics of the early twentieth century.
The current quantity is split into 5 elements: the 1st treats of the pioneers within the research of mechanics, from its beginnings as much as and together with the 16th century; the second one part discusses the formation of classical mechanics, together with the vastly inventive and influential paintings of Galileo, Huygens and Newton. The 3rd half is dedicated to the eighteenth century, during which the association of mechanics reveals its climax within the achievements of Euler, d'Alembert and Lagrange. The fourth half is dedicated to classical mechanics after Lagrange. partly 5, the writer undertakes the relativistic revolutions in quantum and wave mechanics.
Writing with nice readability and sweep of imaginative and prescient, M. Dugas follows heavily the information of the nice innovators and the texts in their writings. the result's an incredibly exact and target account, specifically thorough in its bills of mechanics in antiquity and the center a long time, and the $64000 contributions of Jordanus of Nemore, Jean Buridan, Albert of Saxony, Nicole Oresme, Leonardo da Vinci, and plenty of different key figures.
Erudite, accomplished, replete with penetrating insights, A History of Mechanics is an strangely skillful and wide-ranging research that belongs within the library of somebody drawn to the background of science.

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THE FRAGMENTS ATTRIBUTED TO EUCLID IN ARABIC WRITINGS. Greek antiquity does not attribute any work on mechanics to Euclid. However his name occurs frequently in this connection in the writings of arabic authors. Euclid’s book on the balance, an arabic manuscript of 970 A. D. which has been brought to light by Dr. Woepke,13 seems to have remained unknown to the western Middle Ages. This relic of greek science may be contemporaneous with Euclid and may thus antedate Archimedes. It contains a geometrical proof of the law of levers which is independent of Aristotle’s dynamics and which makes explicit appeal to the hypothesis that the effect of a weight P placed at the end of an arm of a lever is expressed by the product PL.

Finally, and this is the most telling objection to the proceeding analysis, Archimedes, together with those of his successors who tried to improve his proof, tacitly made the hypothesis that the product PL measures the effect of a weight P placed at a distance L from a horizontal axis. In fact, in the case of complete symmetry which is envisaged in Archimedes’ first postulate, equilibrium obtains whatever law of the form Pƒ(L)is taken as a measure of the effect of the weight P. 9 For the rest, the treatise On the Equilibrium of Planes is concerned with the determination of the centres of gravity of particular geometrical figures.

If this is possible, suppose that the body is placed in the fluid with part of it above the surface. Let the fluid be at rest. Suppose that a plane which passes through the centre of the Earth intersects the fluid and the body immersed in it in such a way that the section of the fluid is ABCD and the section of the body is EHTF. Let K be the centre of the Earth, BHTC be the part of the body which is immersed in the fluid and BEFC the part which projects out of it. Construct a pyramid whose base is a parallelogram in the surface of the fluid (α) and whose apex is the centre of the Earth.

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A History of Mechanics by René Dugas

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