By Rigomar Rieger
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Additional resources for A Glossary of Genetics and Cytogenetics: Classical and Molecular
Fertilization (Darlington & Mather 1949). Competition takes place in the style of the female flower and results in a greater percentage of fertilization by pollen of the more compatible genotype, which reach the ovules first and leave insufficient egg cells for fertilization by genotypically less compatible pollen. As a result of c. - ? segregation ratios may be distorted or the -? sex ratio may shift in those cases where male and female determining pollen (male heterogamy: - ? sex determination) have a differential chance of fertilization.
Cell differentiation - = ---? cytodifferentiation. cell division - the reproduction of cells by ---? karyokinesis and -'>- cytokinesis. cell division lag (Ryan 1954) - delayed manifestation of induced -'>- mutations which may occur after heavy doses of some -+ mutagens and is the result of the delayed onset of renewed division (-'>- mutational lag, phenotypic lag). cell envelope - the sum of all surface components of the cell that are located outside the cytoplasmic membrane. cell generation time - the interval between consecutive divisions of a cell.
Chromosomes with two (or more) localized centro meres - dicentric (or "aneucentric") chromosomes - may be produced from them as a result of certain -+ chromosome mutations. The behavior of such chromosomes during the nuclear division is generally abnormal however (-+ bridge-breakagefusion-bridge-cycle). The loss of the localized c. gives rise to acentric chromosomes which are incapable of moving in the -+ spindle and as a rule are rapidly eliminated. During metaphase of mitosis, the c. generally appears as a relatively despiralized, negatively -+ heteropycnotic constriction (-+ allocycly) of the chromosomes ("primary constriction"); these constrictions are generally not detectable ("isopycnosis") during the corresponding stage in meiosis I because of a different type of -+ chromosome coiling.
A Glossary of Genetics and Cytogenetics: Classical and Molecular by Rigomar Rieger