Waltraud Q. Morales's A Brief History of Bolivia PDF

By Waltraud Q. Morales

ISBN-10: 0816046921

ISBN-13: 9780816046928

ISBN-10: 1438108206

ISBN-13: 9781438108209

Compliment for the former variation: ...the author's devotion to Bolivia and challenge for its destiny shines through...Recommended.--Choice

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They set out from the Island of the Sun in Lake Titicaca with a golden staff, which guided them eventually to a mountain near Cuzco in modern-day Peru. There the divine pair established their kingdom. The Ayares, who were Aymara speakers, intermarried with the more primitive regional Indian communities of the Quechua language family and adopted the Quechua language. Over time, the Cuzco Quechua, whose name means “people from the tropical lands,” flourished and developed into the powerful Indian nation that became known as the Inca.

Human labor and land were as much commodities as silver and gold. The Spanish Crown created two types of compulsory laborers: the yanaconas and the mitayos. The yanaconas were exempted from mita service and were basically serfs or slaves permanently bound to large private estates where they worked the fields or served in the household of the landowner. The mitayos were Indians organized under the mita to provide low-paid or unpaid labor for a percentage of the year, working in the mines. The mita combined the Incan system of tribute labor with the Iberian medieval feudal system of obligatory labor and adapted it to the capitalistic needs of the New World entrepreneurs, particularly the mining industrialists.

The members of the council were nobles from wealthy families and former colonial officials. Its staff was extensive and included accountants, solicitors, mapmakers, and historians. The council resided at court, met in secret, and promulgated the king’s colonial policy. It submitted the list of nominees for important political positions for the king’s approval and prepared the voluminous laws and decrees governing the colonies. Additionally, the council served as a final appeals court, supervised all colonial officials, and maintained detailed records and reports of their activities.

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A Brief History of Bolivia by Waltraud Q. Morales

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