By M. Bacon
This publication introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of analyzing 3D seismic info. the themes it covers contain uncomplicated structural interpretation and map-making; using 3-D visualization tools; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by way of expert geophysicists with decades of operating event within the oil undefined, the e-book may be quintessential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Additional info for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
26 explains the differences between primary events and multiples. Here again there are a large number of choices of technique. Methods are based either on velocity moveout differences, or on prediction based on the timing and geometry of the cause of 42 - andplocessing dataacquisition 3-Dseismic the multiple. 27). 27 Gather showing primary and multiple events,illustrating moveout dift-erencesbetween the two. In this examplethe pdmary NMO velocity has beenusedto flatten the primary events The multiples, in this casefrom a deep seabed,are dipping from top left to bottom right.
Radon demultiple on interpolatedgathers 12. High-frequencynoise removal 13. Drop of interpolatedtraces 14. 5 m on near to 50 m on far offsets 15. Sort to common offset 16. Dip moveout (including approximateNMO) halving the number ofoffset planeson output 17. Pre-stack time migration using constant velocity 1600 m/s 18. InverseNMO 19. 5 km grid) 20. NMO Processinghereattercontinuing on three volumes: 21 . Stack to generate three volumes: near offset stack, far offset stack and full offset stack 22.
Suchstripingmay be difficu]t to removb e y l a t e rd a l ap r o c e : s i n g . 7). During processing,this multiplicity of datais usedto increasethe signalto noiseratio of tbe final stack,to pick subsurfacevelocitiesand to discriminatebetweendifferent recordedevents(suchasprimary andmultiplereflections). Modern boatsare capableof towing as many as 12 cableseachtypically between 4 and 8 km in length,though it is unusualto see more than l0 actually deployed. As a resultof the high initial cost of marinevesselsand the needto havenear-continuous operationsto be financially effective,almost all marine 3-D seismicboatsare owned by specialised senicecompanies andnot by energlcompanies.
3-D Seismic Interpretation by M. Bacon